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Yawning and literaure
Yawning by painters
 Physiology of Oxytocin 
 The neuropharmacology of yawning Argiolas A, Melis MR
Dopamine agonist-induced yawning in rats: a dopamine D3 receptor mediated behavior
Collins G et al
 Influence of different adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on physostigmine-induced yawning in rats
Zarrindast MR
 Treatment with dexamethasone alters yawning behavior induced by cholinergic but not dopaminergic agonist
Hipolide DC
Yawning: an evolutionary perspective
Smith EO
EEG correlats of yawning during sleep onset JV Laing & RD Ogilvie
Role of adrenergic neuronal activity in the yawning induced by tacrine in rats
Kimura H et all
Yawning behavior for preclinical drug evaluation
Furukawa T
Direct evidence for involvement of dopaminergic inhibition and cholinergic activation in yawning
Yamada K
Nitric oxide agents and apomorphine induced rat behaviors
Zarrindast M, K Nojoomi et al
Sleep-wakefulness, EEG and behavioral studies of chronic cats without neocortex and striatum: the "diencephalic" cat
Villablanca J, Marcus R
Yawning, cerebral fluid and
the lymphatic pump
Brain Nolman
Yawning gaps Jim Horne

mise à jour le
19 mai 2005
Eur Pharmacol
Neurophysiologie en Anglais
 télécharger l'intégralité de cet article au format pdf
Tous les travaux de MR Melis & A Argiolas 
Tous les travaux de M Eguibar & G Holmgren
Why do we Yawn ? A. Guggisberg, et al  


Yawning is a phylogenetically old, stereotyped event that occurs alone or assiociated with stretching and/or penile erection in humans and in animals from reptiles to birds and mammals under different conditions. Although its physiological function is still unknown, yawning is under the control of several neurotransmitters and neuropetides at the central level as this short overview of litterature on neurochemistry of yawning show
Among these substances, the best known are dopamine, excitatory aminoacids, acetylcholine, serotonin, nitric oxyde, adrenocorticotropic hormone-related petides and oxytocin, that falicitate yawning and opiod peptides that inhibit this behavioral reponse.
Some of the above compounds interact in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to control yawning. This hypothalamic nucleus contains the cell bodies of oxytocinergic neurons projecting to extra-hyopthalamic brain areas that play a key role in the expression of this behavioral event.
When activate by dopamine, ecxitatory aminoacids and oxytocin itself, the neurons facilitate yawning by releasing oxytocin at sites distant form the paraventricular nucleus, i.e. the hippocampus, the pons and/or the medulla oblongata. Conversely, actviation of these neurons by dopamine, oxycocin or excitatory aminoacids, is antagonized by opioid peptides, that, in turn, prevent the yawning reponse.
The activation and inhibition, respectively of these oxytocinergic neurons is related to concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, of paraventricular nitric oxide synthase activity. However, other neuronal systems in addiction to the central paraventricular oxytocinergic neurons are involved in the control of yawning, since they do seem to be involved in the expression of ywaning induced by the stimulation of acetylcholine or sreotononergic receptors, nor by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and related peptides. Nitric oxide is also involved in the induction of yawing by the latter compounds and neuronal links, for instance between dopamine and acetylcholine and dopamine and serotonin, seem to be involved in the yawnin repose.
Finally, other neurotransmitters, i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and noradrenaline and neuropeptides, i.e. neurotensin and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), influence this behavioral reponse.
In conclusion, in spite of somme recent progress, little is known of, and more as to be to identify the neurochemical mechanism underlying yawning at the central level.
 dopamine D3
Collins G, JM Witkin et al Dopamine agonist-induced yawning in rats: a dopamine d3 receptor mediated behavior J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005
Argiolas A, Melis Mr, Bernard B departement of neuroscience, University of Cagliari, Italy
The neuropharmacology of yawning Eur Pharmacol 1998; 343; 1; 1-16
télécharger l'intégralité de cet article au format pdf
-Sanna F, Succu S, Melis MR, Argiolas A. Dopamine agonist-induced penile erection and yawning: Differential role of D(2)-like receptor subtypes and correlation with nitric oxide production in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of male rats. Behav Brain Res. 2012
........................neurophy...... ......
Askenasy JJ Is yawning an arousal defense reflex ?
Schematic model of neurotransmitter circuits that are involved in the three states of vigilance
Yawning and penile erection: central dopamine-oxytocin-adrenocorticotropin connection Argiolas A
Yawning: neurochemistry, physiology and pathology 1987 Argiolas A, Melis MR, Gessa GL
Flavio Aloe Yawning
Daquin G, J Micallef, O Blin Yawning
Smith EO Yawning: an evolutionary perspective
Why do people yawn ? 
Neural basis of drug induced yawning Cooper SJ, Dourish CT in Neurobiology of Stereotyped Behaviour