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 Le bâillement, du réflexe à la pathologie
Le bâillement : de l'éthologie à la médecine clinique
Le bâillement : phylogenèse, éthologie, nosogénie
 Le bâillement : un comportement universel
La parakinésie brachiale oscitante
Yawning: its cycle, its role
Warum gähnen wir ?
Fetal yawning assessed by 3D and 4D sonography
Le bâillement foetal
Le bâillement, du réflexe à la pathologie
Le bâillement : de l'éthologie à la médecine clinique
Le bâillement : phylogenèse, éthologie, nosogénie
 Le bâillement : un comportement universel
La parakinésie brachiale oscitante
Yawning: its cycle, its role
Warum gähnen wir ?
Fetal yawning assessed by 3D and 4D sonography
Le bâillement foetal

 mise à jour du
25 férvrier 2007
Self-injurious and stereotypic behavior
Maintenance behavior - Comportement substitutif


Aggression constitutes a central problem in several psychopathologies, including anxiety and depression disorders and antisocial behaviors. Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a serious behavioral condition that afflicts millions of individuals in the World.
The underlying factors contributing to the development of self-injury in people are poorly understood, and existing treatment strategies for this condition are limited.
In rhesus macaques, prolonged individual housing or stress exposed, particularly if initiated at an early age, is implicated, spontaneously, as a leading contributing factor to the development of SIB.
Behavioral observations were done, by Fontenot et al. using focal sampling techniques. Rates of self-biting and self-directed stereotypies and time spent displaying idiosyncratic self-directed stereotypies decreased significantly when group- and single-housed animals were housed outdoors. Rates of yawning and scratching were significantly decreased for group- and single-housed animals and, for group-housed animals, self-grooming decreased with outdoor housing.
Rates of self-biting, time engaging in idiosyncratic self-directed stereotypies, and yawning remained significantly lower during weeks 7 through 12 (outdoor housing) compared with those under indoor housing. Rates of scratching and time spent self-grooming decreased significantly during the first 6 wk but then returned to baseline levels.
These findings suggest that self-biting and self-directed stereotypic behavior in rhesus macaques with a history of self-injurious behavior is significantly reduced by outdoor housing regardless of whether animals are socially or individually housed.
Monkeys with SIB exhibit long-lasting disturbances in central and peripheral opioid and stress response systems and a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which lead to increased levels of anxiety, associated with aggression-related disorders. The increased neuronal activation of the PVN (from which yawning is triggered?) along with the higher ACTH responsiveness might underlie the display of high aggression (the medial amygdala, and central amygdala, seem to be the areas relevant for the regulation of aggression).
Implications of these hypothesis for understanding self-injury in patients with borderline personality disorder and members of the general population delay to appear. (to imprison or to give freedom!)
L'agressivité est au coeur de nombreuses psychopathologies, comme l'anxiété, la dépression et nombre de comportements associaux. L'auto-mutilation est un comportement d'auto-agressivité pathologique largement répandu, affligeant plusieurs millions d'individus de par le Monde.
Les facteurs conduisant à cet état morbide sont actuellement mal compris et les traitements limités.
Chez les singes macaques, l'enfermement en cage individuelle (ou l'exposition à des stress), d'autant qu'il a été imposé à un plus jeune âge, est un facteur favorisant communément admis.
Fontenot et al ont réalisé des observations comportementales. Ils ont pu établir que les comportements stéréotypiques, répétitifs d'auto-manipulation ou d'auto-agressivité était significativement réduits en autorisant une vie en groupe avec accès à un vaste enclos externe. En particulier le nombre de bâillements et de grattages, indicateurs connus de niveau élevé du stress chez le macque, diminue fortement.
Les macaques présentant une comportement d'auto-mutilation ont des perturbations de l'axe hypothalamo-hypohysaire et des systèmes opioïdes suggérant que ces structures sont à l'origine des perturbations comportementales.
Une augmentation de l'activité neuronale du PVN (structure hypothalamique impliquée dans le déclenchement des bâillements) avec réponse accrue à l'ACTH (élevant le nombre des bâillements) serait impliquée dans l'extériorisation de cet état d'auto-agressivité (en liaison avec l'amygdale comme structure corticale modulant l'agressivité).
Effects of outdoor housing on self-injurious and stereotypic behavior in adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)
Fontenot MB, Wilkes MN, Lynch CS. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2006;45(5):35-43.
The effects of fluoxetine and buspirone on self-injurious and stereotypic behavior in adult male rhesus macaques
Fontenot MB, Padgett EE et al. Comp Med 2005;55(1):67-74.
Extinction deficits in male rhesus macaques with a history of self-injurious behavior
Lutz C, Tiefenbacher S, Meyer J, Novak M. Am J Primatol 2004;63(2):41-48
Displacement activities and arousal
Delius JD Nature 1967;214:1259-1260
Inhibition of social behavior in chimpanzees under high-density conditions
Aureli F, de Waal FB Am J Primatol 1997;41(3): 213-228
Herrelko ES, Buchanan-Smith HM, Vick SJ. Perception of Available Space During Chimpanzee Introductions: Number of Accessible Areas Is More Important Than Enclosure Size. Zoo Biology 2015;xx:1-9
The physiology and neurochemistry of self-injurious behavior: a nonhuman primate model.
Tiefenbacher S, Novak MA, et al. Front Biosci. 2005;1(10):1-11
Food-reinforced yawning in Macaca tonkeana
Anderson JR; Wunderlich D Am J Primatol 1988;16:165-169
Ethological study of yawning in primates
Deputte BL Ethology 1994;98: 221-245
The influence of age, sex, rank on yawning behavior in two species of macaques
Troisi A, Aureli F Ethology 1990, 86, 303-310
Aging, dominance history, and social behavior in Java-monkey.
Veenema HC, Spruijt BM, et al. Neurobiol Aging 1997;18(5):509-515
Induced grooming transitions and open field behaviour differ in high- and low-yawning sublines of Sprague-Dawley rats
Moyaho A et al Animal Behavior 1995; 50; 61-72
Grooming and yawning trace adjustment to unfamiliar environments in laboratory Sprague-Dawley rats
Moyaho A, Valencia J J Comparative Psychology 2002; 116; 3; 263-269
A modest proposal: displacement activities as an indicator of emotions in primates
Maestripieri D et al. Anim Behav 19992;44:967-979

Evaluation of the effects of a socialization program in a prison on behavior and pituitary adrenal hormone levels of shelter dogs Applied Animal Behaviour Science 2006;99(1-2):157-167
Hennessy MB, Morris A, Linden F
Department of Psychology, Wright State University
Pet Behavior and Training Services
Dayton, USA
This study examined outcomes of an ongoing socialization program for shelter dogs conducted at a local prison. Dogs residing at a Humane Society facility were assigned to either a "Control" or "Socialization" treatment. Dogs assigned to both treatments were administered a pretest at the Humane Society consisting of blood withdrawal for hormone analysis, assessment of responses to commands, and observation of behavior in a novel situation.
Dogs assigned to the Socialization treatment were then transported to the prison where they lived with, and were trained by, inmate handlers. Dogs in the Control treatment remained at the Humane Society and received no explicit training. Three weeks later, dogs were administered a posttest identical in form to the pretest.
Dogs provided the Socialization, but not Control, treatment exhibited significant improvement from pretest to posttest in compliance with commands.
In a novel situation, Socialization dogs showed significantly less jumping on an unfamiliar human and vocalizing, and significantly more yawning, in the posttest relative to the pretest than did Control dogs.
Whereas plasma cortisol levels did not vary from pretest to posttest in either group, ACTH levels unexpectedly increased with time in both groups. Moreover, cortisol and ACTH levels were significantly positively correlated with each other at the posttest, but not the pretest.
These results provide evidence for positive behavioral outcomes of prison socialization programs for shelter dogs, as well as further support for the notion that shelter housing results in a dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis.
Cette étude rapporte les modifications comportementales de chiens gardés en chenil suivant qu'ils aient été ou non dressés. Les chiens dressés suatent moins, jappent moins mais bâillent plus que les chiens non dressés. Il semble exister un désordre de l'axe hypothalamo-surrénalien favorisé par la vie chenil.