mystery of yawning
Le bâillement, du réflexe à la pathologie
Le bâillement : de l'éthologie à la médecine clinique
Le bâillement : phylogenèse, éthologie, nosogénie
 Le bâillement : un comportement universel
La parakinésie brachiale oscitante
Yawning: its cycle, its role
Warum gähnen wir ?
Fetal yawning assessed by 3D and 4D sonography
Le bâillement foetal
Le bâillement, du réflexe à la pathologie
Le bâillement : de l'éthologie à la médecine clinique
Le bâillement : phylogenèse, éthologie, nosogénie
 Le bâillement : un comportement universel
La parakinésie brachiale oscitante
Yawning: its cycle, its role
Warum gähnen wir ?
Fetal yawning assessed by 3D and 4D sonography
Le bâillement foetal

 mise à jour du
31 août 2023
Yawning and the thermoregulatory hypothesis
The new theory of Christina Rebbe december 2011


Andrew C. Gallup
at Princeton University
Andrew C. Gallup
Psychology Department, SUNY College at Oneonta, NY, United States
Gallup at FICY, Paris june 2010
-Platek SM, Critton SR, Myers TE, Gallup GG. Contagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution Cogn Brain Res 2003;17(2):223-227 Contagious yawning: the role of self-awareness and mental state attribution. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 2003;17:223-7.
-Gallup AC, Gallup G. Yawning as a brain cooling mechanism: nasal breathing and forehead cooling diminish the incidence of contagious yawning. Evolutionary Psychology; 2007;5(1): 92-101
-Gallup AC, Gallup GG Jr. Yawning and thermoregulation. Physiol Behav. 2008;95(1-2):10-16
-Gallup AC, Gallup GG Jr Venlafaxine-induced excessive yawning: a thermoregulatory connection Prog Neuro Psychopharmacol Biol Pyschiatry 2009;33(4):747
-Gallup AC, Gallup GG Jr. Medical implications of excessive yawning in relation to thermoregulatory dysfunction. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16(6):e120.
-Miller ML, Gallup AC et al. Handling stress initially inhibits, but then potentiates yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Animal Behav 2009;77(1):109-113
-Gallup AC, Miller ML, Clark AB Yawning and thermoregulation in budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus Animal Behav 2009;77(1):109-113
-Gallup AC, Gallup GG Jr, Feo C. Yawning, sleep, and symptom relief in patients with multiple sclerosis. Sleep Med. 2010;11(3):329-331
-Gallup GG, Gallup AC. Excessive yawning and thermoregulation: two case histories of chronic, debilitating bouts of yawning. Sleep Breath. 2010;14:157-159
-Gallup AC. Yawning as a behavioral adaptation to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010;142(4):670-61.
-Gallup AC. A thermoregulatory behavior. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2010;28:84-89.
-Shoup-Knox ML, Gallup ac and al. Yawning and stretching predict brain temperature changes in rats: support for the thermoregulatory hypothesis. Evolutionary neuroscience. 2010;2(9):a108:5p
-Gallup AC. The thermoregulatory hypothesis of yawning: Time to reconsider terms such as "impossible" and "cannot" and evaluate theories based on evidence. Sleep Med 2011;12(1):102-110
-Miller ML, Gallup AC et al. Handling stress initially inhibits, but then potentiates yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Animal Behaviour. 2010;80(4):615-619.
-Gallup AC. Why do we yawn? Primitive versus derived features. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35(3):765-9
-Gallup AC, Eldakar OT. Contagious yawning and seasonal climate variation. Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience. 2011;3:3
-Gallup AC. Excessive yawning and thermoregulatory dysfunction. Sleep Breath 2011;15:271-273
-Gallup AC, Miller RR, Clark AB. Changes in Ambient Temperature Trigger Yawning But Not Stretching in Rats. Ethology. 2011;117:145&endash;153
-Gallup AC, Hack GD. Human paranasal sinuses and selective brain cooling: A ventilation system
activated by yawning? Med Hypotheses. 2011;77(6):970-973.
-Corey TP, Shoup-Knox ML, Gordis EB, Gallup GG Jr. Changes in Physiology before, during, and after Yawning. Front Evol Neurosci. 2011;3(7):1-11
-Miller ML, Gallup AC, Vogel AR, Vicario SM, Clark AB. Evidence for contagious behaviors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): An observational study of yawning and stretching. Behav Processes. 2012;89(3):264-270
-Miller ML, Gallup AC, Vogel AR, Clark AB. Auditory disturbances promote temporal clustering of yawning and stretching in small groups of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). J Comp Psychol. 2012
Gallup A, Eldakar OT. The thermoregulatory theory of yawning: what we know from over 5 years of research. Front Neurosci.2012;6:188
Gallup AC, Gallup JA. Frequent yawning as an initial signal of fever relief. Med Hypotheses. 2013
Massen JJM, Dusch K, Eldakar OT, Gallup AC. A Thermal Window for Yawning in Humans: Yawning as a Brain Cooling Mechanism. Physiology Behavior 2014;130:145-8.
Gallup AC. Abnormal yawning in stroke patients: the role of brain thermoregulation. Front Neurosci. 2014 Sep 17;8:300
Eldakar OT, Dauzonne M, Prilutzkaya Y, Garcia D, Thadal C, Gallup AC. Temperature-Dependent in Self-Reported Contagious Yawning. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology. 2015;1(2).
Gallup AC, Swartwood L, Militello J, Sackett S. Experimental evidence of contagious yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Anim Cogn. 2015;18(5):1051-158
Gallup AC, Church AM. The effects of intranasal oxytocin on contagious yawning. Neuroscience Letters 2015;607:13-16
Gallup AC, Clark AB Commentary: yawning, acute stressors, and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings. Fontiers in Psychology 29 october 2015
Gallup AC. Ambient temperature modulates yawning. Adap Hum Behav Physiol 2015, in press
Massen JJM, Church AM and Gallup AC. Auditory Contagious Yawning in Humans: An Investigation into Affiliation and Status Effects. Front. Psychol. 2015;6:1735.
Gallup A, Church AM, Miller H, Risko EF, Kingstone A. Social Presence Diminishes Contagious Yawning in the Laboratory. Sci Rep 2016;6:25045.
Gallup A. Ambient temperature modulates yawning. Temperature. 2016;3(1):23&endash;24.
Massen JJ, Slipogor V, Gallup AC. An Observational Investigation of Behavioral Contagion in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for Contagious Scent-Marking. Front Psychol. 2016;7:1190.
Gallup A, Massen JJ. There is no difference in contagious yawning between men and women. Royal Society 7 september 2016
Gallup AC, Church AM, Pelegrino AJ. Yawn duration predicts brain weight and cortical neuron number in mammals. Biol Lett. 2016;12(10)
Eguibar JR, Uribe CA, Cortes C, Bautista A, Gallup AC. Yawning reduces facial temperature in the high-yawning subline of Sprague-Dawley rats. BMC Neurosci. 2017;18(1):3.
Eldakar OT, Tartar JL, Garcia D, Ramirez V, Dauzonnel M, Armani Y, Gallup AC. Acute Physical Stress Modulates the Temporal Expression of Self-Reported Contagious Yawning in Humans. Adaptative Human Behavior and Physiology 2017
Massen JJM, Gallup AC. Why contagious yawning does not (yet) equate to empathy. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017;80:573-585.
Marraffa A, Lekander M , Solsjö P, Olsson MJ, Lasselin J, Axelsson J. Yawning, a thermoregulatory mechanism during fever? A study of yawning frequency and its predictors during experimentally induced sickness. Physiol Behav 2017
Gallup A, Herron E, Militello J, Swartwood L, Cortes C, Eguibar J. Thermal imaging reveals sizable shifts in facial temperature surrounding yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Temperature 2017;4(4):xxxxx
Gallup AC, Vasilyev D, Anderson N, Kingstone A. Contagious yawning in virtual reality is affected by actual, but not simulated, social presence. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):294-304.
Ramirez V, Ryan CP, Eldakar OT, Gallup AC. Manipulating neck temperature alters contagious yawning in humans. Physiol Behav. 2019;207:86-89
Gallup AC, Moscatello L, Massen JJM. Brain weight predicts yawn duration across domesticated dog breeds. Curr Zool. 2020;66(4):401-405
-Gallup A. Meyers K. Seeing others yawn selectively enhances vigilance: an eye-tracking study of snake detection. Animal Cognition 2021
-Massen JJM, Hartlieb M, Martin JS, Leitgeb EB, Hockl J, Kocourek M, Olkowicz S, Zhang Y, Osadnik C, Verkleij JW, Bugnyar T, N_mec P, Gallup AC. Brain size and neuron numbers drive differences in yawn duration across mammals and birds. Commun Biol. 2021;4(1):503. doi: 10.1038/s42003-021-02019-y.
-Gallup AC, Kret ME, Eldakar OT, Folz J, Massen JJM. People that score high on psychopathic traits are less likely to yawn contagiously. Sci Rep. 2021 Dec 10;11(1):23779.
-Gallup A. The causes and consequences of yawning in animal groups. Animal Behavior 187 (2022) 209e219
-Gallup AC, Schild AB, Ühlein MA, Bugnyar T, Massen JJM. No Evidence for Contagious Yawning in Juvenile Ravens (Corvus corax): An Observational Study. Animals (Basel). 2022;12(11):1357. 
-Gallup A, Wozny S. Interspecific Contagious Yawning in Humans. Animals (Basel) 2022;12(15):1908
-Gallup A. On the link between rapid eye movement sleep and yawning Sleep and Breathing 2023
On discussion
-de Castro Siqueira L. Yawning and thermoregulation in budgerigars: lack of support from results. Animal Behaviour 2009;78(6):e1-e2
-Elo H.Yawning and thermoregulation. Sleep Breath. 2010;14(4):391-2.
-Elo H. Yawning cannot cause significant temperature decreases in humans. Sleep Med. 2011;12(1):102
-Guggisberg AG, Mathis J et al.Why do we yawn? The importance of evidence for specific yawn-induced effects. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35(3):765-9
Measuring brain temperature without a thermometer
David Papo
Front Physiol
Brain Temperature & Autonomic Nervous System for the study of relaxation
A. Dittmar, C. Gehin, A. Oliveira, B. R. Nocua, E. McAdams
L'échelle mésoscopique est une échelle intermédiaire entre l'échelle microscopique, qui caractérise les atomes ou les molécules, et l'échelle macroscopique.
Cerebral temperature, what else ?
Temperature has profound effects on a wide range of parameters of neural activity at various scales.
At the cell level, ionic currents, membrane potential, input resistance, action potential amplitude, duration and propagation, and synaptic transmission have all been shown to be affected by temperature variations.
At mesoscopic scales of neural activity, temperature changes can steer network activity toward different functional regimes, affecting the duration, frequency and firing rate of activated states during slow frequency oscillations, and the ability to end these states.
Temperature also has a substantial effect on chemical reaction rates, and affects the blood oxygen saturation level by changing haemoglobin affinity for oxygen. Furthermore, cooling reduces metabolic processes, and has been used to silence cortical areas to study their function.
Impact sur la physiologie cérébrale des variations de la température cérébrale
Les variations de la température cérébrale a d'importants effets sur une large gamme de paramètres de l'activité neuronale à différentes échelles.
Au niveau cellulaire, les courants ioniques, le potentiel membranaire (pompe Na/K) l'amplitude du potentiel d'action, la durée et la propagation et la transmission synaptique sont tous affectés par les variations de température.
A des échelles mésoscopiques de l'activité neuronale, les changements de température modifient l'activité fonctionnelle des réseaux neuronaux, affectant la durée, la fréquence et l'état d'activation, en particulier des ondes lentes à l'ECG.
La température a également un effet important sur le nombre de réaction chimique au sein du neurone et de la glie, et affecte le niveau de saturation du sang en oxygène en modifiant l'affinité de l'hémoglobine pour l'oxygène. En outre, le refroidissement réduit les processus métaboliques, et a été utilisé pour réduire l'activité d'aires corticales afin d'étudier leurs fonctions.