mise à jour du
13 novembre 2005
J PharmacoBio dynamics
1980; 3; S16-S18
Behavioral studies on central dopaminergic neurons.
especially jumping, stretching, body shaking
and yawning behavior
Yamada K, Furukawa T
Department of pharmacology, School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan


Behavioral studies were performed in an attempt to elucidate the involvement of dopaminergic neurons in Jumping and sretching in mice and body shaking and yawning in rats. Alpha-naphthoxyacetic acid (a-NOAA) elicited dose-dependent jumping and stretching behavior at doses ranging from 250 to 700 mg/kg in mice and vomiting at a dose of 550 mg/kg in pigeons. Beta-NOAA also produced jumping behavior, but the action was weaker than a-NOAA.
The (a-NOAA-induced jumping behavior was only inhibited to a certain degree by disulfiram, tranycypromine, haloperidol, scopolamine, bicuculline, diazepam or lithium, but was markedly inhibited by a dopaminergic agonist, apomorphine, this inhibitory effect being significantly antagonized by a dopaminergic antagonist, haloperidol. Apomorphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) produced itself neither stretching in mice nor vomiting in pigeons though it induced marked feeding (pecking) in pigeons. However protoveratrine-A (0.1 mg/kg, /.p.), a veratrum alkaloid, also induced stretching in mice and vomiting in pigeons.
The characteristic stretching elicited by a-NOAA or protoveratrine-A was not significantly affected by scopolamine, aminooxyacetic acid and y-butyrolactone, but was markedly inhibited by apomorphine, this inhibitory effect being antagonized without significance by haloperidol which did not itself augment the stretching. Moreover, intraperitoneal injections of a-NOAA at doses of 550 and 700 mg/kg in mice exhibited a significant increase of brain dopamine levels. These results indicate that the jumping and stretching behavior elicited by a-NOAA may be due to the inhibition of dopaminergic neuronal activity.
Low doses (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) of apomorphine, which preferentially activate presynaptic dopamine autoreccptors, elicited yawning in rats. Whereas apomorphine, at a high dose of 2 mg/kg, produces stereotypy which has been thought to be mediated by stimulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptors. The yawning and stereotypy did not occur simultaneously in the rat. The apomorphine-induced yawning was completely inhibited by pretreatment with fluphenazine or scopolamine, but markedly increased by reserpine though it was not affected by methylscopolamine.
Piribedil also elicited yawning at a low dose of 5 mg/kg (i.p.) and stereotypy at a high dose of 80 mg/kg. The yawning produced by piribedil was significantly blocked by fluphena zine, scopolamine and methysergide. Both physostigmine (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.), an indirect acetylcholine agonist, and pilocarpine (4 mg/kg, LP.), a direct acetylcholine agonist, also induced yawning, which was abolished by scopolamine and increased by reserpine. Fluphenazine did not affect the pilocarpine-induced yawning but increased the physostigmine-induced yawning. In addition, the physostigmine-induced yawning was mark edly inhibited by apomorphine but not by a selective antiserotonergic drug, methysergide, whereas the pilocarpine-induced yawning was not affected by either apomorphine or methysergide.
Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, (alpha MSH, 10 µg/i. vent.) induced yawning an stretching but it also produced body shaking. Yawning synchronized with stretching in almost all cases. Yawning and stretching were gradually increased after injection and was marked at 90-100 min and 60-70 mm, respectively, while body shaking began within 5 min and was marked at 10-20 min after injection. Body shaking was also produced by the combined treatment with 5-hydroxytryptophan (150 mg/kg, s.c.) and Ro 4-4602 (50 mg/kg, i.p.) accompanied scarcely by yawning and stretching.
The a-MSH-induced yawning and stretching were blocked by scopolamine, apomorphine fluphenazine and methysergide, while body shak ing was not blocked by scopolamine but decreased by apomorphine, fluphenazine and methysergide. The results indicate that apomorphine and piribedil elicit yawning by stimulating presynaptic dopamine receptors and the yawning concomitantly involves serotonergic activation, dopaminergic inhibition and cholinergic activation, and that the jumping and stretching behavior seem to be due to dopaminergic inhibition and the body shaking due to serotonergic activation.
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-Yamada K, Furukawa T Behavioral studies on central dopaminergic neurons. especially jumping, stretching, body shaking and yawning behavior J PharmacoBio dynamics 1980; 3; S16-S18
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