mise à jour du
10 mars 2005
Integr Physiol Behav Sci
Cocaine-induced brainstem seizures and behavior
Qian XB, Andy OJ, Dearman C, Andrews M, Rockhold RW
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center,
Jackson USA


A variety of abnormal sensory/motor behaviors associated with electrical discharges recorded from the bilateral brainstem were induced in adult WKY rats by mechanical (electrode implants) and DC electrical current stimulations and by acute and chronic administration of cocaine.
The electrode implant implicated one side or the other of the reticular system of the brainstem but subjects were not incapacitated by the stimulations. Cocaine (40 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously for an acute experiment and subsequent 20 mg/kg doses twice daily for 3 days in a chronic study.
Cocaine generated more abnormal behaviors in the brainstem perturbation group, especially the electrically perturbated subjects. The abnormal behaviors were yawning, retrocollis, hyperactivity, hypersensitivity, "beating drum" behavior, squealing, head bobbing, circling, sniffing, abnormal posturing, and facial twitching. Shifts in the power frequency spectra of the discharge patterns were noted between quiet and pacing behavioral states. Hypersensitivity to various auditory, tactile, and visual stimulation was present and shifts in the brainstem ambient power spectral frequency occurred in response to tactile stimulation.
These findings suggest that the brainstem generates and propagates pathological discharges that can be elicited by mechanical and DC electrical perturbation. Cocaine was found to activate the discharge system and thus induce abnormal behaviors that are generated at the discharge site and at distant sites to which the discharge propagates. Cognitive functions may also be involved since dopaminergic and serotonergic cellular elements at the brainstem level are also implicated.

Symptoms of neonatal ethanol withdrawal  
Curr Alcohol 1981; 8; 485-493
Robe LB, Gromisch DS, Iosub S
Neonatal withdrawal symptoms in 15 cases of fetal alcohol syndrome with maternal intoxication at time of delivery, reported in 9 studies, are compared with symptoms reported in 138 cases of neonatal narcotic withdrawal. Seen frequently in ethanol but rarely in narcotic withdrawal are abdominal distention and opisthotonos. Seen frequently in narcotic but rarely in ethanol withdrawal are high pitch cry, frequent yawning, excessive sucking, mottling of the skin, excoriation, nasal stuffiness, excess sweating, sleeplessness and diarrhea. Seen frequently in both are increased muscle tonicity and tremors; however, convulsions are rare in narcotic yet are fairly frequent in neonatal ethanol withdrawal.
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Cocaine-induced brainstem seizures and behavior Qian XB et al
Symptoms of neonatal ethanol withdrawal Robe LB et al

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