Les internes de JM. Charcot
 Les biographies de neurologues


 Biographies de neurologues
Nouvelle Iconographie de La Salpêtrière
 L'histoire des neurosciences à La Pitié et à La Salpêtrière J Poirier
The history of neurosciences at La Pitié and La Salpêtrière J Poirier

 mise à jour du
9 septembre 2013
En français
Pierre Marie
Paris, 9 septembre1853 - 13 avril 1940, Paris
extrait de http://www.whonamedit.com
 Les biographies de neurologues


pierre marie 1885
Pierre Marie en 1885, interne de JM. Charcot à La Salpêtrière (au centre)
 © Extrait de l'Album de l'internat de La Salpêtrière conservé à la Bibliothèque Charcot à l'hôpital de la Salpêtrière
(Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris)
Diplégie faciale totale avec paralysie glosso-laryngo-cervicale chez deux frères Brissaud, Marie 1893
Mouvements involontaires dans les membres paralysés
Pierre Marie et André Léri 1911
Pierre Marie, the son of a wealthy bourgeois family of Paris, received his first education at a boarding school in Vanves. Complying with the wish of his father, he first studied law, before deciding to enter medicine. After completing medical school, he was named Interne des hôpitaux in 1878 and began his work in neurology under the tutelage of Jean-Martin Charcot at the Salpêtrière and Bicêtre.
Marie soon became one of Charcot's most outstanding students and served as his laboratory and clinic chief and special assistant. He received his medical doctorate in 1883 with a classical dissertation on Basedow's diseasase, carrying a graphic description of the tremor observed in the extended arms and fingers, a phenomenon he had begun to study while a medical student. Promoted to médecin des hôpitaux in Paris in 1888, he was apponted agrégé at the Paris Faculty of Medicine in 1889. As part of his work for this position, he presented to the faculty a series of lectures, now famous, on diseases of the spinal cord, which were published in 1892.
In 1897 he received a position with the Hospice de Bicêtre, which had been founded by Louis IX. Here he created a neurological service that gained worldwide repute. In this period he published extensively on aphasia, and rejected the views of Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880) and Karl Wernicke (1848-1905) on the localisation of the speech center. His document on the subject was the basis of a devastating critique on the previous work. He attacked the ideas of Broca, using as the provocative title for his paper "The third left frontal convolution has no special role in the function of language." Dissecting one of Broca's specimens which had remained untouched, he demonstrated that the lesion affected far more than Broca's area. His three papers on aphasia appeared in Semaine médicale in 1906. They generated much discussion, and three special sessions of the Société française de neurologie de Paris convened in 1908 to compare Marie's views on language disorders, which differed from Broca's widely accepted doctrine that aphasia is caused by a lesion in the cerebral hemisphere's «speech center.»
pierre marie
en 1890, interne de JM. Charcot
pierre marie
 © Extrait de l'Album de l'internat de La Salpêtrière conservé à la Bibliothèque Charcot à l'hôpital de la Salpêtrière
(Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris)
In 1907 he successfully applied for the vacant chair of pathological anatomy at the Faculty of Medicine, and during his ten years there dedicated himself to that profession, however, without adding much to the subject itself. With the aid of Gustave Roussy, his successor, Marie completely modernized the teaching of pathological anatomy in medical schools, and established laboratories and a museum.
In 1917, aged 64, Marie was appointed to the chair of neurology which had been created for Charcot and occupied since his tenure by Fulgence Raymond (1844-1919), Édouard Brissaud (1852-1909) and Joseph Jules Dejerine (1849-1917). When Marie assumed the chair in 1918, toward the end of a destructive war, there were no longer the facilities or the means to continue the painstaking laboratory studies of the Dejerine school, nor did Marie's interests incline him in that direction. During the war, Marie and his colleagues in «Charcot's clinic» devoted most of their time to the study and treatment of neurological traumas of the wounded, but Marie's great productive period was over.
A brilliant clinician in the tradition of Charcot, Marie was an outstanding, demanding teacher. Between 1885 and 1910, the most productive period of his career, he wrote numerous articles and book and developed an international school of neurology which was to produce many distinguished pupils. He possessed a keen intuition which was sharpened by a rigorous approach to the study and practice of neurology. Capable of making shrewd clinical judgments, Marie successfully identified and described a series of disorders with which his name is linked.
pierre marie
extrait de
Une leçon de Charcot à La Salpêtrière
tableau de André Brouillet 1887
In one of his earliest and most significant works (1886-1891), he provided the first description and study of acromegaly. Marie's analysis of the pituitary gland disorder was a fundamental contribution to the nascent field of endocrinology. He was also the first to define muscular atrophy type Charcot-Marie (1886), pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (1890); cerebellar heredotaxia (1893); cleidocranial dyssostosis (1897); and rhizomelic spondylosis (1898).
Marie led a quiet, private life with his wife and only child, André, who also became a physician. He received few visitors and avoided public appearances although he was awarded numerous honors. His abiding interests were art, the Revue neurologique, which he and E. Brissaud founded in 1893, and the Société Française de Neurologie, which he served as its first general secretary. He was a member of the Académie de Médecine from 1911.
Outside medicine his interests were in the arts, fencing, and golf, and his life was happy until his daughter Juliette died of appendicitis. After resigning from his chair at the Salpêtrière in 1925, aged seventy two, he spent the winters at Côte d'Azur and the summer at his estate in Normandy. His life was shattered, however, by the death of his wife from erysipelas and his only son from botulism he had contracted during his investigations at the Pasteur Institute. After this he lived as a virtual recluse and was increasingly troubled by ill health until his death at the age of 86.

pierre mariepierre marie
Pierre Marie devint interne à 25 ans, et connut JM Charcot au sommet de sa carrière. Il participa à la description d'entités nouvellement isolées comme l'atophie musculaire progressive en 1886, l'acromégalie en 1886, l'ostéoartropathie hypertrophique en 1890, l'hérédoataxie cérébelleuse en 1893, la spondylose ankylosante en 1898. Il obtint ainsi une réputation internationale. En 1897, il obtint la direction du service de Bicêre où il explora en particulier les différentes formes d'aphasie. En 1918, à 65 ans, il fut nommé à la Chaire de Neurologie créée par Charcot. En collaboration avec C. Foix, H. Meige et d'autres, il publia différents travaux consacrés aux séquelles neurologiques de la guerre. Associé à E. Brissaud il avait fondé en 1893 la Revue Neurologique.
pierre marie
A gauche, PierreMarie, interne, observant une crise d'hystérie mâle
Des formes frustes de la maladie de Basedow. Thèse de doctorat, Paris, 1883.
Sclerose en plaques et maladies infectieuses. 1884.
Sur deux cas d'acromégalie. 1886.
De la déviation faciale dans l'hémiplégie hystérique.
Sur une form particulière d'atrophie musculaire progressive; souvent familiale, débutant par les pieds et les jambes et atteignant tard les mains. With Jean Martin Charcot. Rev Méd, Paris, 1886, 6: 97
Hystérie dans l'intoxication par le sulfure de carbone. 1888.
Ostéoarthropathie hypertrophiante pneumique. 1890.
Essays on Acromegaly. With bibliography and appendix of cases by other authors. London, 1891.
Leçons sur les maladies de la moëlle épinière. Paris, 1892. Translated into German. English translation by M. Lubbock: Lectures on Diseases of the Spinal Cord. London, 1895.
Sur l'hérédo-ataxie cérébelleuse. Semaine médicale, Paris, 1893, 13: 444.
Leçons de clinique médicale. Hôtel-Dieu, 1894-1895.
Sur un syndrome clinique et urologique se montrant dans le diabète lévulosurique et caractérisé par un état mélancolique avec insomnie et impuissance. With Robinson. 1897.
L'évolution du langage considéré au point de vue de l'étude de l'Aphasie. 1897.
Dysostose cléido-crânienne héréditaire. Paul Sainton (1868-1958). 1897.
Spondylose rhizomélique. 1898.
Pagetsche Knochenkrankheit. With André Léri. In Handbuch der Neurologie. Volume 4, Berlin,1913.
Note sur un syndrome de paralysie flasque plus ou moins généralisée avec abolition des reflexes, hyperalbuminose massive et xantochromie vers la guerison et de nature indéterminée. Written with C. Chatelin. Revue neurologique, 1916, 30: 564-565.
Neurologie. 2 volumes; Paris, 1923.
Travaux et mémoires. Paris, 1926 and 1928.
pierre marie
Dans la collection des clichés de Pierre Marie en 1921, ce patient pseudo bulbaire au rire et pleurer spasmodique, parésie des 4 membres, bouge les doigts droits lors de son bâillement ( voir la parakinésie brachiale oscitante )!
pierre marie
Piere Marie a décrit l'acromégalie
pierre marie
Le diagnostic des maladies nerveuses Sir J. Purves-Stewart 1939
Abercrombie J, Gendrin A Des maladies de l'encéphale et de la moelle épinière Germer-Baillière 1835
Abercrombie J Yawning and apoplexy Medical Times and Gazette 1863;1:656-661
Bauer G. et al Involuntary motor phenomena in the locked in syndrome J Neurology 1980;223;:91-198
Bertolotti M. Etude sur la pandiculation automatique des hémiplégiques Rev Neurol 1905;2(19): 953-959
Blin O, Rasol O, Azulay JP, Serratrice G. A single report of an hemiplegic arm stretching related to yawning J Neuro Sci 1994;126:225-227
Brissaud E, Pinard, A, Reclus P Pratique médico-chirurgicale Hémiplégie par A Souques Masson 1907, p538-539
Brissaud E Leçons sur les maladies nerveuses Masson 1895, p458
Darwin E. Zoonomia 1801
de Buck Classification des mouvements anormaux associés à l'hémiplégie Rev Neurol 1899;6:361-365
Furtado D. Provocation spinale d'un réflexe de bâillement. Rev d'oto neuro ophtalmologie.1951;23(1):
Ghika J., Bogousslavsky J. Dissociated preservation of automatic-voluntary jaw movements in a patient with biopercular and unilateral pontine infarcts Eur Neurol 2003;50:185-188
Heusner A P Yawning and associated phenomena Physiological Review 1946;25:156-168
Klippel M et Monier-Vinard R. Hémiplégie flaccide. Nouveau Traité de Médecine. Masson. 1928 p 316
Lanari A., Delbono O. The yawning and stretching sign in hemiplegics Medicina (B Aires) 1983;43(3):355-35
Liecey Nouvelle observation de bâillement convulsif périodique Le Courrier Médical 1879;29;334-336
Liégey Deux observations de bâillements intermittents Gazette médicale de Strasbourg 1851; p118-119
Louwerse E Forced yawning as a pseudobulbar sign in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis J Neuroscience Research 1998, sup, 392
Mulley G. Assoctiated reactions in the hemiplegic arm Scand J Rehab Med 1982;14:117-120
Ogle JW. Arm rising during yawning The Medical Times and Gazette. 28 february 1863 p 213
Pierre Marie La Pratique Neurologique Hémiplégie, mouvements associés Masson 1911, p477-480
Pierre Marie et Léri A. Mouvements involontaires dans les membres paralysés 1911 Nouveau Traité de médecine et de thérapeutique Brouardel, Gilbert, Thoinot JB Baillière Ed 1911 p283-291
Purves-Stewart J. Le diagnostic des maladies nerveuses 1939
Quoirin E. Elévation involontaire du membre supérieur chez l'hémiplégique lors d'un bâillement Thèse doctorat en médecine Poitiers 2002
Thomson HC Associated movements in hemiplegia : their origin and physiological significance Brain 1903;26:515-523
Töpper R, Mull M, Nacimento W Involuntary stretching during yawning in patients with pyramidal tract lesions: further evidence for the existence of an independent emotional motor system European J Neurology 2003;10:495-499
Trautmann R. Le bâillement Thèse Bordeaux; 1901-02; N° 40; 86 pages
Vulpian A Leçons sur la physiologie générale et comparée du système nerveux faites au Museum d'histoire naturelle. Rédigées par E.Brémond. Paris, Baillière, 1866
Vulpian A Maladies du système nerveux Paris, Doin, 1879
Walshe FMR  On certain tonic or postural reflexes in hemiplegia with special reference to the so called "associated movements".   Brain, 1923;46:1-37
Wimalaratna HS, Capildeo R. Is yawning a brainstem phenomenon ? a stroke patient who stretched his hemiplegic arm during yawning Lancet 1988;1(8580):300